Problems Encountered by Researchers in India

Lack of Scientific Training: The research methodology is not systematic. Many researchers undertake research work without having actual knowledge of the research methods. They just look for similar studies and copy the methodologies listed in it. Even the research guides do not have a thorough knowledge of the various methodologies. This scenario warrants the need for some sort of short-term training to be imparted to researchers prior to undertaking research activities.

Insufficient Interaction: There is no proper interaction between researchers and the business establishments, government institutions, etc. This leads to a great deal of data going untapped. Interaction programs should be organized between researchers and other institutions on a regular basis. This will highlight what issues need to be researched, what data is required for conducting research, and how the study will be useful.

Lack of Confidence: Most of the business establishments are of the opinion that, researchers can misuse the data provided by them. As such, they are reluctant to divulge details of their company. This affects the research studies for which that particular data may be of utmost importance. Thus, confidence-building measures should be adopted, which will convince the business units that their data will be put to productive purposes, and will not be misused in any manner by the researcher.

Lack of Code of Conduct: No specific code of conduct exists for the researchers, which leads to inter-departmental and inter-university rivalries.

Inadequate Assistance: Researchers in India have to cope with the non-availability of adequate and timely secretarial assistance, which affects the schedule of their research study.

Improper Library Management: The libraries are not managed systematically. Much of the precious time of the researchers is spent in looking for books, reports, newspapers, etc. rather than searching relevant information from them.

High Cost of Publishing: Once their research is completed, the researchers have to look for a means to publish it. Publishing in international journals is highly expensive. This discourages most of the researchers from taking up research work.


Significance of Research

“All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention” is a famous Hudson Maxim in context of which the significance of research can well be understood. Increased amounts of research make progress possible. Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. The role of research in several fields of applied economics, whether related to business or to the economy as a whole, has greatly increased in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of business and government has focused attention on the use of research in solving operational problems. Research, as an aid to economic policy, has gained added importance, both for government and business. Research provides the basis for nearly all government policies in our economic system. For instance, government’s budgets rest in part on an analysis of the needs and desires of the people and on the availability of revenues to meet these needs. The cost of needs has to be equated to probable revenues and this is a field where research is most needed. Through research we can devise alternative policies and can as well examine the consequences of each of these alternatives.


Objectives of Research

The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim or objectives of research is to find out the truth that is hidden and has not been discovered yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of the following broad groupings:

1. To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. Studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies.
2. To accurately portray the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group. Studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies.
3. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with. Studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies.
4. To test the hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables. Such studies are termed as hypothesis-testing research studies.


How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper

The methods section of a research paper provides the information by which a study’s validity is judged. Therefore, it requires a clear and precise description of how an experiment was done, and the rationale for why specific experimental procedures were chosen. The methods section should describe what was done to answer the research question, describe how it was done, justify the experimental design, and explain how the results were analyzed. Scientific writing is direct and orderly. Therefore, the methods section structure should: describe the materials used in the study, explain how the materials were prepared for the study, describe the research protocol, explain how measurements were made and what calculations were performed, and state which statistical tests were done to analyze the data. Once all elements of the methods section are written, subsequent drafts should focus on how to present those elements as clearly and logically as possibly. The description of preparations, measurements, and the protocol should be organized chronologically. For clarity, when a large amount of detail must be presented, information should be presented in sub-sections according to topic. Material in each section should be organized topic wise, from most to least important.